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Additional collections of scanned books, articles, and other texts (usually organized by topic) are presented here.

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Interest in career development and career counseling is growing in Korea. Nevertheless, neither the research nor the literature adequately address the question as to what applications can be cross-culturally transferred from career counseling centers in the United States to Korea. This study qualitatively examines the practice of career counseling in seven university career counseling centers in the United States in a search for concepts and methods that may be cross-culturally applied to...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Foreign Countries, Publicity, Information Technology, Career Development, Career...
The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions, identification and treatment of students with behavior problems or disorders in India and the United States. Participants in the study were students and teachers in the United States and India. A qualitative approach included in-depth interviews and participant observations. These were conducted in classrooms both in India and the United States with teachers, students, and their parents/guardians. Data analysis reflected ongoing...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Behavior Problems, Cross Cultural Studies, Behavior Disorders, Foreign Countries,...
This contribution is based on the assumption that implicit theories influence the subjective action space and hence the learning behavior of students. The implicit theory that an individual holds of an intelligent person is of particular importance in this context. For this cross-cultural study, we asked 200 students from Kenya and Germany to draw an intelligent person and then to rate the typicality of the drawing with respect to a number of attributes. The data indicated considerable...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Foreign Countries, Cross Cultural Studies, Theories, Intelligence, Individual...
Globalization and technology are two of the many drivers that impact today's education locally and internationally. The purpose of the research study was to identify how online learners in Korea and the U.S. perceived online learning motivation differently and what learner characteristics and cultural orientation affected the online learners' learning motivation. Major findings revealed there was a significant difference in learning motivation between the U.S. and Korean online learners. The...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Global Approach, Foreign Countries, Cultural Differences, Online Courses, Learning...
This cross-cultural study tests a model of motivation on children's learning. Participating in the study are 805 Chinese students and 740 Canadian students. Students answered survey questions related to their perceptions of parents and teachers as well as their motivation orientations and the perceived level of control in learning; their homeroom teachers also provided a rating on their diligence and performance in school. The results showed that of the four types of motivation orientation...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Achievement, Children, Cross Cultural Studies, Foreign Countries,...
This study reports the administration of the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) (J. Kouzes and B. Posner, 1995) to 28 graduate students in educational administration at a university in the Southwest of the United States and 28 students at a university in Mexico. The limitations of this quantitative measure are examined, and comparisons of leadership across cultures are made. The U.S. educators scored significantly higher than did Mexican educators on all five of the inventory's leadership...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Cross Cultural Studies, Educational Practices, Foreign Countries, Graduate Students,...
This report discusses the outcomes of a study that used qualitative data to examine the concept of attention deficit disorders from an international perspective. Surveys were conducted in two different parts of the world (West Virginia and Pakistan) among elementary school teachers. Seventy-two Pakistani school teachers and 149 American school teachers were surveyed. Findings showed a significant difference in percentages of students who are perceived as having attention deficit disorder or...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Attention Deficit Disorders, Child Rearing, Cross Cultural Studies, Disability...
In this study, differential substance use between American and Australian college students was assessed through administration of a survey concerning recent use of six commonly used psychoactive substances (cigarettes, chewing tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and caffeine). Situational contexts associated with the use of each particular substance were also investigated, along with the motivating factors that prompted different types of substance use. Students (N=195) attending college in a...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Cocaine, College Students, Cross Cultural Studies, Drinking, Foreign Countries,...
This literature and research review was conducted to provide an Aboriginal perspective to the work of the Western Canadian Protocol Social Studies K-12 Project. The Project is a positive step toward rebuilding cooperative relationships between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples, and will also provide the students of western Canada with an understanding and respect for diversity. The first three sections of this paper review: (1) the history of Aboriginal education (traditional education,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, American Indian History, Canada...
The last four decades have seen a dramatic increase in the number of women entering employment. This is particularly true in Europe and although more European women are working outside the home, the patterns of female employment have changed very little. An analysis of these patterns is presented. It was found that women continue to dominate specific fields, particularly teaching and service providing. An investigation of the interpersonal behavior differences among 117 American women from the...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Assertiveness, Attitudes, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Differences, Employed...
This paper reports to attempt to replicate in Britain Britton and Tesser's (1991) study of the relationship between scores on a time management scale and college grades using a larger sample size and a British (rather than American) student population. Subjects were 302 psychology students who completed the 18-item scale after their first term of study. Results were compared with data on an end-of-year examination, coursework grades awarded during the year, and the final end-of-year grade....
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Achievement, College Students, Cross Cultural Studies, Foreign Countries,...
This cross-cultural study was designed to overcome some limitations of previous research by not only inquiring into general attitudes toward physical punishment, but also by obtaining information concerning the context (for example, situation, type of misbehavior, and form of physical punishment). A cross-cultural comparison was made of attitudes of 227 college students in the United States and Japan. Participants responded to a questionnaire yielding data on their general attitudes toward...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Behavior Problems, Child Behavior, College Students, Context Effect, Corporal...
In this study of prominent characteristics of parenting in the United States, France, and Japan, 72 mother-infant dyads were examined. The study focused on three prominent interactive domains of visual and vocal exchange between mother and baby (nurturing, social exchange, and didactic stimulation), examining their frequency of occurrence and patterns of covariation. Findings revealed significant main effects of culture, with American mothers showing significantly higher rates of object...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Behavior Development, Child Rearing, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Differences,...
This book contains the following papers from a European research seminar examining the history and theory of cross-cultural communication in adult education: "Introduction: Encounters and Identities in European Adult Education since 1890" (Barry J. Hake, Stuart Marriott); "The University Extension Movement (1892-1914) in Ghent, Belgium in Comparative Perspective" (Dirk van Damme); "Adaptation of an Educational Innovation: The Introduction of University Extension into...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Education, Comparative Analysis, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Context,...
Cultural reciprocity refers to the dynamic and material exchange of knowledge, values, and perspectives between two or more individuals of different cultural (e.g., racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, religious) backgrounds. In this paper, cultural reciprocity is discussed as it pertains to professors of education and their students, based on the history of their interactions and diversity of experiences in cross-cultural settings. The ongoing study is personal and collaborative as a...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Case Studies, Constructivism (Learning), Cultural Awareness, Cultural Influences,...
This study attempts to reinforce developmental theory concerning spatial Comprehension by building on the qualitative observations of art educators of the past, and by strengthening the empirical basis of contemporary investigations into the relationship between pictorial representations, intellectual maturity, and environmental stimulation. Drawings from a wide variety of cultures were studied to determine whether the sequence and rate at which developmental characteristics appear are similar,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Abstract Reasoning, Age Differences, Cognitive Development, Concept Formation, Cross...
This ERIC Bibliography on cross cultural early education and day care is a collection of references for educators and researchers interested in how children are educated and cared for in other countries. References are grouped in 4 sections. (1) Cross cultural studies, (2) A collection of references for each of the 33 countries covered, (3) General early childhood topics, (4) General resources, including organizations and journals. (GO)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Bibliographies, Child Care, Child Development, Comparative Education, Cross Cultural...
Problems encountered in cross-cultural research are discussed in this report which describes a study of the relationship between social class differences and maternal teaching patterns of 2- and 3-year-old children. The study involved a total of 63 mother-child dyads from middle- and working-class groups in Bristol, England and 34 Kuwaiti mother-child dyads from a traditional middle-class group and a group in which middle-class status was recently achieved. English mothers' teaching style and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Cross Cultural Studies, Foreign Countries, Learning Activities, Measurement...
This book represents a synthesis of current knowledge about the physical, cognitive and social development of young children who live in the developing countries of Africa, Asia, Latin-America, and Oceania. The book develops five major themes: (1) It views child development in a comparative fashion, examining universal sequences in development as well as the diverse behavior patterns that are adaptive in a wide variety of cultural contexts. (2) It focuses on the interrelationship of biological,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Books, Child Development, Cognitive Development, Cognitive Processes, Cognitive...
Differences between 50 Israeli and 87 American students in grades 9 through 12 were investigated using the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking-Figural Form A. Results showed that Israeli students scored higher than the American students in grades 9, 10 and 12 on fluency and flexibility. Israeli students scored higher on originality only in grade 10, while American students scored higher on elaboration only in grade 11. A quadratic trend was observed for fluency, flexibility, and elaboration...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adolescents, Age Differences, Biographical Inventories, Creativity, Creativity...
Achievement motivation recently has been examined as a four-factor construct. Fiji, part of the British Commonwealth, provides an interesting testing ground for the question of different achievement patterns for different ethnic groups. The achievement motivation levels of high school students from four ethnic groups and university students from Fijian and Indo-Fijian ethnic groups were examined using a four-factor scale, self-esteem, and attitudes toward women. Significant ethnic group...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Achievement, Achievement Need, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Differences,...
The construct of self-esteem has received considerable attention in recent years. Self-esteem is defined as a personal judgment of worthiness that is expressed in attitudes that individuals hold for themselves. This study compared self-esteem of American and Chinese children. Subjects included 446 American elementary school students from the midwest and 437 Chinese elementary school students from Taiwan. Subjects were administered the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Form B. The Self-Esteem...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Differences, Elementary Education, Elementary School...
There is considerable awareness among Israeli mental health workers and citizens of the importance of differentiating between acute or chronic reactions to severely stressful life situations and manifestations of mental illness and anxiety, or developmental and adjustment disorders. Israeli mental health workers have become expert and are heavily committed to treating stress-related phenomena. While manuals are available for dealing with stress reactions in school children, teachers, and mental...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adolescent Development, Adolescents, Anxiety, Bias, Child Development, Children,...
This awareness-raising module on women at midlife and older ages in cross-cultural perspective is intended for discussion groups, workshops, and college courses on women's lives in different societies. Based on empowerment workshops in Acapulco, Mexico, and the District of Columbia, in which women from a wide range of social classes and occupations participated, the publication has three parts: (1) a paper, "Empowerment of Older Women: Evidence from Historical and Contemporary...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Consciousness Raising, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Awareness, Cultural...
This paper reviews some of the issues in the new literacy studies and the questions, from an anthropological perspective, of self, person, and identity that affect literacy practices. It is suggested that in discussing literacy, it is better to start from a cultural viewpoint rather than an educational one. The traditional autonomous model of literacy is critiqued, particularly the "we" of western cultures giving literacy to "them" in the developing world. The complexity of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Literacy, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Context, Developing Nations,...
This cross-cultural study compared the lives of Chinese children and British expatriate children, assessed the children's perception of potentially stressful life events, and examined the relationship between the children's cognitive maturity and their adjustment skills. Subjects were 25 British preschool children living in Singapore and 25 local Singaporean Chinese children between the ages of 4 and 6 years. The two stressors examined in this study were separation anxiety and relocation...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adjustment (to Environment), Cognitive Development, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural...
This instructor's manual provides an overview of educating human-services workers in British Columbia (Canada) in order to change and understand racism. In addition to exercises that can be used with classes to promote examination of beliefs and values, brief histories of racism in British Columbia and the experiences of specific racial or ethnic groups are traced. British Columbia is a microcosm of intense and controversial racial and cultural interactions. Several models of cross-cultural...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Case Studies, College Students, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Awareness, Cultural...
This paper reports the results of a study that compared the strategies used by three different groups of upper secondary school students to regulate their own learning processes: 248 Australian students, 215 Japanese students at Japanese schools, and 30 Japanese students at Australian schools. The ways in which strategies are categorized were found to be important in making comparisons between the groups. Although students used a similar range of strategies across the three groups, the pattern...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Achievement, Comparative Analysis, Comprehension, Cross Cultural Studies,...
This study examined cultural differences among elementary school parents' perceptions of literacy learning. Ten parents from each of three sociocultural groups were interviewed about their attitudes toward emergent literacy: (1) white-collar Chinese-Canadians; (2) white-collar Euro-Canadians; and (3) blue-collar Indo-Canadians. It found that about 84 percent of Euro-Canadian parents' responses were congruent with an emergent literacy perspective, while 63 percent of the Indo-Canadian and 54...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Differences, Educational Attitudes, Elementary...
This study analyzed responses to members of different outgroups or persons of another nationality, race, religion, culture, and social class in formerly West and East Germany and in the United States. These analyses support the position that a person's general values, specifically materialism or postmaterialsim, and general beliefs concerning control issues are related to the degree of prejudice shown. Cross-cultural research contributes to understanding of the underlying dynamics of prejudice....
Topics: ERIC Archive, Bias, Cross Cultural Studies, Foreign Countries, Higher Education, Locus of Control,...